Cardiology

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Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death and disease in the United States. Although regular exercise can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CV) such as CHD and high blood pressure (hypertension) Many people do not exercise. Fitness is important to cardiovascular health.

Myocardial infarction (MI), or heart attack, is defined as the heart muscle injury or death due to insufficiency. oxygen due to clogged arteries Doctors often attribute heart disease symptoms to other factors in female patients. And women are often skeptical of having MI and attending late, with nearly half dying from heart attacks, half of MI deaths. Women are also about 10 years more likely to live longer than men with MI, and are more likely to have MI. have other chronic diseases too

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (also known as HCM, IHSS, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy) is an illness affecting the heart muscle. It interferes with the heart’s ability to pump blood. Sometimes it also changes the heart’s natural rhythm, which leads to irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias). One type of cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, occurs when the heart’s muscle fi bers grow abnormally. Heart walls thicken, especially in the left ventricle (the main pumping chamber). The left ventricle becomes smaller inside, the heart cannot rest completely between beats, and the ventricle pumps less blood out of the heart. People are at risk for fainting (syncope), chest pain (angina), diffi culty breathing (dyspnea), and sudden death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy affects people of all ages, including children. It can cause sudden death even in children and young adults.

CHF is a condition in which the heart cannot (fails to) pump enough blood to organs and tissues. One side of the heart (or both sides) cannot force enough blood out, so blood backs up. Congestion, or abnormal buildup of fl uid, occurs in tissues or organs, and blood doesn’t move well through the vascular system. If the left side of the heart fails, the system on the right side becomes congested. The congested side of the heart must work harder and may also fail. The same thing can happen on the right side.

The heart is a muscular pump with four chambers, two upper (left and right atria) and two lower (left and right ventricles). These contract and pump blood. Special tissue in the heart produces and sends electrical impulses to get the muscle to contract. Normal electrical signals start from the sinoatrial (SA) node in the wall of the right atrium. From there the signal goes to the left atrium and reaches the atrioventricular (AV) node between the atria and ventricles. The signal then goes to the left and right bundle branches and fi nally the ventricles. There it stimulates ventricles to contract. Heart block refers to a disturbance of these impulses. Thirddegree heart block, or complete heart block, is one of three types (fi rst- and second-degree blocks are the others). In complete heart block, no impulses from the atria reach the ventricles. Signals are completely blocked at the AV node

The atria are the top chambers of the heart that send blood to the ventricles (bottom chambers). A septum is a wall separating the left and right sides of these chambers. An atrial septal defect (ASD) is an inborn (congenital) heart condition. It is a hole in the septum separating the left and right atria. The left side of the heart normally pumps under higher pressure than the right side. The defect produces a left-to-right shunt that allows blood from the two sides of the heart to mix. Blood with less oxygen is pumped to the body, and oxygenated blood travels back to the lungs. Abnormal circulation on the right side of the system causes increased pressure in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension). ASD is more common in girls than boys. Some defects close as a child grows, but others may last into adulthood. ASD is the most common congenital heart defect diagnosed in adults. ASD cannot be prevented

The speed and pattern of your heartbeat is called your heart rhythm and can be felt by feeling the pulse. Your heart rhythm is set by signals from the heart’s electrical system. An abnormal heart rhythm is called an arrhythmia. Atrial fi brillation is one type of abnormal rhythm. The muscle looks as if it is wiggling instead of squeezing (contracting).

Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is a disorder in which the opening of the aortic valve in the heart is too small or stiff. A valve is like a doorway, and the aortic valve is one of four valves controlling blood fl ow inside the heart. A normal aortic valve has three fl aps (leafl ets). The heart sends oxygen rich blood to the body through this valve. In AVS, the heart works harder to pump blood through the smaller opening. This extra effort can make the heart grow big and weak. AVS occurs about three times more often in men than in women.

The aorta is the large artery that leaves the heart from the leftlower chamber (ventricle). The aortic valve is between the left ventricle and the aorta. Aortic insuffi ciency (or aortic regurgitation) is the leaking of blood from the aorta through the aortic valve into the left ventricle when the ventricle contracts. Aortic insuffi ciency causes the left ventricle to get larger because of the extra blood in it.

An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a bulging of the aorta, the main blood vessel that takes blood from the heart to organs and tissues in the lower half of the body. The aorta is the largest artery in the body, and a stretching or bulging in the aorta is dangerous because this weakened area in the wall of the aorta may split open (rupture) if not treated. These aneurysms commonly occur in people older than 60 and affect men more than women. Ruptured aneurysms are the 10th leading cause of death in men older than 55 in the United States.

The tricus is closed between the right atrium and the right ventricle. In the heart, the valves open when blood flows from the upper chambers to the lower chambers. and reflecting back to the upper chambers, causing the atria to work harder

is a condition in which the heart's electrical current increases abnormally abnormally fast heartbeat It is more common in people aged 20 years. and is the cause of tachycardia in children and infants.

Caused by a leak in the ventricle of the heart between two chambers. The left chamber pressure is greater than the right chamber. So the blood goes into the mix. and less oxygen to nourish the body The right ventricle exerts pressure back to the left ventricle, increasing pressure in the pulmonary arteries. VSDs are congenital diseases.

heartbeat faster than usual Causing the heart to not fully fill with blood, beating 150–250 beats per minute, from normal 60-100 beats per minute, SVT includes a long-standing heart flutter, known as AFIB, a common type and other types AVNRT AVRT Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome SVT is found in both men and women.

Is the heart sending abnormal electrical current. The name comes from the graph on the EKG. It is a small current that stimulates muscle contraction. and while the heart muscle relaxes The cells are repolarized, causing cardiac disturbances. Fast and agile It occurs more often in children and adolescents aged 8-20 years.

It is an inflammation of the heart muscle.

Congestion in the chest due to decreased blood and oxygen supply to the heart It is a symptom of coronary heart disease and coronary artery hardening from the presence of cholesterol and fat deposits in the arteries. Acute chest pain can cause spasms of the heart muscle. in which acute angina is uncertain can happen to the situation

The heart normally pumps blood from the upper atrium to the lower ventricle. Electricity runs from SA node to AV node and then runs from left to right. Heartbeat is interrupted due to slow power to the AV node.

It is a disease caused by the heart muscle protecting itself from the contraction of the heart itself. by limiting the ability to divide the contraction because the stripes of the muscles are strong causing the heart to not fully expand after filling with blood The thicker the heart muscle Therefore, the compression is even more abnormal. This disorder is less common than other types of heart disease.

Caused by the contraction of the heart muscle too much. And the ventricular heart beats faster than the rhythm and blood supply to the body is not good. This arrhythmia is known as arrhythmia and results in an irregular pulse. PVCs can occur in normal people. which most people do not need treatment

The pericardium is the layer that covers and organizes the location of the heart in the chest cavity. This disease is caused by inflammation of this membrane. in which the membrane becomes scarred and thicker limiting the heart muscle

Blood pressure is the pressure of blood on the walls of arteries caused by the pumping action of the heart. Increased blood pressure puts a strain on the circulatory system. directly affects the occurrence of diseases of the vascular system

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